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Thursday, March 29, 2012

Been (बीं) Review

Been (बीं): A Mile Stone in the History of Garhwali Literature and Garhwali Literary Criticism
(Review of ‘Been’ (बीं) a collection of Literary Criticism Notes on Garhwali literature by Virendra Panwar)
Notes on Asian languages Literary Criticism, Indian Literary Criticism, North Indian Languages Literary Criticism, Himalayan languages Literary Criticism, Uttarakhandi languages Literary Criticism, Garhwali Literary Criticism

Review By- Bhishma Kukreti

Been a collection of reviews of forty books by Virendra Panwar is a historical and a celebration book for Garhwali language literature.  Till right now, the criticism in Garhwali literature was thought as a secondary aspect of literature. However, ‘Been’ will make criticism a very serious aspect of creativity and research in Garhwali literature.
Virendra Panwar has been reviewing poetry and prose books since 2000. In an interview with this author, Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna named a brilliant gem among nine gems of Garhwali criticism.  Literature creative are aware that criticism is to facilitate readers to understand and realize the writings whose effects might otherwise have been unduly limited.  There is also no doubt that critics can’t reduce the original text.  Virendra Panwar is knowledgeable, insightful and fair minded and fulfils the basic requirement for a reputed critic. .

Tilpatar: a Garhwali Drama

(Review of ‘Tilpatar’ a Garhwali drama by playwright Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna)
Notes on Hurting by Old Tradition and Agonizing from Changes in Asian Dramas, Hurting by Old Tradition and Agonizing from Changes in Indian Dramas, Hurting by Old Tradition and Agonizing from Changes in North Indian Dramas, Hurting by Old Tradition and Agonizing from Changes in Himalayan Dramas, Hurting by Old Tradition and Agonizing from Changes in Uttarakhandi Dramas, Hurting by Old Tradition and Agonizing from Changes in Garhwali Dramas

A Garhwali drama ‘Tilpatar’ written for radio medium by playwright Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna opens many psychological fields and also talks about hurting by old custom to common man. ‘Tilpatar’ drama has main characters Bahuguna, Uniyal, Dangwal and Dobhal; assisting characters Mrs. Bahuguna and Mrs. Dobhal all reside in Nagpur. Once, Bahuguna, Uniyal, Dangwal and Dobhal were four topmost Brahmin casts called ‘Chauthu Baman’ (group of four Brahmin castes). Initially, Uniyal, Dangwal and Dobhal characters talk about old glory of these four topmost Brahmin castes in Garhwal. In fact the talk is the real expression of Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna himself about changes took place suddenly in Garhwal and other parts of India that Bahuguna, Uniyal, Dangwal and Dobhal are no more respected by other Garhwali casts as these four casts were recognized in old time.  This type of pain is still found among upper Brahmin castes, Rajput Thokdar for their old glories of recognition and surprisingly such pain is found among high profile Shilpkars too who were recognized much in past for their craftsmanship.
The focus of drama is on the hurting by old custom of Garhwal. Bahuguna keeps his wife locked when he goes out. Uniyal, Dangwal and Dobhal criticize Bahuguna for his inhumanly behavior to lock his beautiful wife. However, when Bahuguna and his wife reveal the real cause behind this behavior of Bahuguna, all feel sorry for old custom of Chauth Brahmins.
Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna successfully could deal the mental agonies of Chauth Brahmins for losing the old glory of recognition in the society and at the same time he could come to the main point of drama.
The dialogues are full of old and new proverbs those make the drama interesting. The playwright also shows the binding among migrated Garhwalis of sixties and their behavioral pattern in Nagpur or Delhi, Mumbai.

1-Dr Anil Dabral, Garhwali Gady Parampara (for finding Hurting by Old Tradition and Agonizing from Changes in Contemporary Garhwali Dramas from beginning till 1990)
2-Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Gad Myateki Ganga (for finding Hurting by Old Tradition and Agonizing from Changes in Contemporary Garhwali dramas from beginning till 1975)
3-Dr Sudharani, Garhwal ka  Rangmanch (for finding Hurting by Old Tradition and Agonizing from Changes in Contemporary  Garhwali Dramas from beginning till 1985)
4-Drama special issue of Chitthi Patri magazine (for finding Hurting by Old Tradition and Agonizing from Changes in Contemporary Garhwali Dramas and plays staged in Delhi, Karachi, Mumbai, Dehradun and other places)
5- Dr Hari Datt Bhatt Shailesh, Garhwali Natak evam Rangmanch: Ek Vihngam Avlokan (for finding Hurting by Old Tradition and Agonizing from Changes in Contemporary Garhwali Drams and theatres from beginning till 1985)
6-Dr Bhakt Darshan: Barrister Mukandi Lal Srmriti Granth (for finding Hurting by Old Tradition and Agonizing from Changes in Contemporary Garhwali dramatists or theatres playwrights till 1985
8- Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna,1986,  ‘Chakrchal’ , 16 Contemporary  Garhwali Drama collection for finding Hurting by Old Tradition and Agonizing from Changes in , B2 -B48, Janakpuri, New Delhi -110058

Copyright@ Bhishm Kukreti, Mumbai, India

Farak: A Garhwali Drama

Notes on Class Conflict about Caste Inequalities in Modern Indian Dramas, Class Conflict about Caste Inequalities in Modern Himalayan  Dramas, Class Conflict about Caste Inequalities in Modern Uttarakhandi  Dramas, Class Conflict about Caste Inequalities in Modern Garhwali  Dramas

There had been very thin inequalities between richer and poorer in rural Kumaun and Garhwal before British took over the rule. However, caste inequalities were very much there in rural Garhwal and rural Kumaun. Though in both the areas, due to geographical conditions and need for Shilpkars by upper caste for each work fewer cruelties were recorded from upper class towards Shilpkar or Untouchables.  There is no historical record before British Raj about awareness among Shilpkar for getting their right of equality. However, freedom movement and Arya samaj movement brought awareness for social equalities among Shilpkar in rural Kumaun and rural Garhwal. There had been a long movement called ‘Dola Palki’ movement a symbol of getting social equalities for Shilpkar in rural Garhwal and rural Kumaun. Perhaps ‘Janeu dharan ‘by Shilpkar, ‘Dola Palki’ and entry into temple by Shilpkar initiated the class conflict first time in Garhwal and Kumaun.
The’ Farak ‘drama written by playwright Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna is about class conflict and desire for social class equalities from Shilpkar community. The drama is very straight and less tension is shown in the drama ‘Farak’ which is about Class Conflict about Caste Inequalities. The drama is one sided and tell about how Shilpkar feel /express about the inequalities from upper caste. The drama is expression of Shilpkar’s sentiment about class inequalities.  The role of upper caste is at the end when a upper caste boy comes takes tea powder and sugar from richer Shilpkar family; Khimanand Brahman comes takes Pithai, and takes alcohol with Shilpkar with the water brought by Shilpkar family. The dramatist shows that upper caste designs all rule of caste equalities or inequalities as per their own need.
  The dram is fine one to show the pain of Caste Inequalities but is totally failure in showing conflicts between two classes. Without having tension of class conflict the drama becomes totally idealistic. However, Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna should be complimented to bring the subject of Caste Inequalities in Modern Garhwali Dramas.
References:
1-Dr Anil Dabral, Garhwali Gady Parampara (Class Conflict about Caste Inequalities in Contemporary Garhwali Dramas from beginning till 1990)
2-Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Gad Myateki Ganga (Conflict about Caste Inequalities in Contemporary Garhwali dramas from beginning till 1975)
3-Dr Sudharani, Garhwal ka  Rangmanch (Class Conflict about Caste Inequalities Contemporary  Garhwali Dramas from beginning till 1985)
4-Drama special issue of Chitthi Patri magazine (Class conflicts and Caste inequalities in Contemporary Garhwali Dramas and plays staged in Delhi, Karachi, Mumbai, Dehradun and other places)
5- Dr Hari Datt Bhatt Shailesh, Garhwali Natak evam Rangmanch: Ek Vihngam Avlokan (Cast conflicts and caste inequalities in Contemporary Garhwali Drams and theatres from beginning till 1985)
6-Dr Bhakt Darshan: Barrister Mukandi Lal Srmriti Granth (Contemporary Garhwali dramatists or theatres playwrights who showed class Conflict about Caste Inequalities in their dramas)
7-Dr Nand Kishor Dhoundiyal, Garhwal ki Divangat Vibhutiyan (pp108-116, about contribution of Bhagwati Prasad Panthri for developing Contemporary Garhwali drama)
8- Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna,1986,  ‘Chakrchal’ , 16 Contemporary  Garhwali Drama collection, B2 -B48, Janakpuri, New Delhi -110058 (Class Conflict about Caste Inequalities in Modern Garhwali  Dramas)
Copyright@ Bhishm Kukreti

Wednesday, March 28, 2012

A Rawain- Garhwali Folk


(Notes on Rawai Folk Songs about Oppressed People, Garhwali Folk Songs about Oppressed People, Uttarakhandi Folk Songs about Oppressed People, Himalayan Folk Songs about Oppressed People, Indian Folk Songs about Oppressed People, Asian Folk Songs about Oppressed People)

Rawain is the area in the valley of Tons (Tamsa) and Yamuna Rivers of Uttarkashi district of Garhwal region. The area has a distinct culture and civilization from the Mahabharata era. The area Rawain was under Tihri King from 1815-1949. Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral provided many oppressive methods of Tihri kings to get taxes from their subject. There had been many protests from Rawai region too especially by those inhabitants who had to settle in winter at southern Tihri Garhwal and in summer at Yamunotri area. There had been aggression from the King’s side for increasing Government forest area by diminishing the forest area of individual village. There had been tens of protests against the Tihri king in Rawain area.
The Tihri Riyasat police used to harass the people. The following folk song of Rawain area is the proof of oppression by Tihri Kings to their subject.  Dr. Naudiyal states that still people of Rawain feel scared remembering the Tihri king.

टिहरी राजा खिलाप रवाईं को लोकगीत

हड़दी हड़ी काँवणी खिलादीना तीर रे
सुरेतू का डेरे दा बिजली से जोर रे
घरे दा लाणा गाडिया कटियों दा चूना रे
डेरे दा फूका सुरेतू गाँव का पड़ा सुना रे
फूली जाला फुलेटू डाटटी ना दाई रे
सुरेतू का डेरा पुलिस रे आई रे
तुमारे भीतर सुनेरी ना चाकी रे
थाणे दी आई पुलिस ओबेर दी राखी रे



(संकलन - डा. जगदीश नौडियाल )

References: Dr. Shiv Prasad Dabral, Uttarakhand ka Itihas
Dr. Jagdish Naudiyal, Uttarakhand ki Sanskritik Dharohar pg24
Copyright@Bhishma Kukreti

Kulangar: A drama

(Review of ‘Kulangar’ drama by Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna)

Kulangar’ is one of the sixteen dramas of ‘Chakrchal’ a drama collection by Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna. Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna wrote the drama for radio medium.  
The subject and aim of the drama are very confusing. The playwright wanted to tell many mottos and in making so the dramatist failed to convey the desired message.  There are characters as Chitra Singh his son Sher sing, mother of Chitra Singh, a Dalit his beautiful daughter, two Mitra Nand Bahuguna of Jhala village, Patwari .
Since, the drama is ineffective much is not possible to write about this drama.

References:
1-Dr Anil Dabral, Garhwali Gady Parampara (Modern, Contemporary Garhwali Dramas from beginning till 1990)
2-Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Gad Myateki Ganga (Modern, Contemporary Garhwali dramas from beginning till 1975)
3-Dr Sudharani, Garhwal ka Rangmanch (Modern, Contemporary Garhwali Dramas from beginning till 1985)
4-Drama special issue of Chitthi Patri magazine (Modern, Contemporary Garhwali Dramas and plays staged in Delhi, Karachi, Mumbai, Dehradun and other places)
5- Dr Hari Datt Bhatt Shailesh, Garhwali Natak evam Rangmanch: Ek Vihngam Avlokan (Modern, Contemporary Garhwali Drams and theatres from beginning till 1985)
6-Dr Bhakt Darshan: Barrister Mukandi Lal Srmriti Granth (Modern, Contemporary Garhwali dramatists or theatres playwrights till 1985
7-Dr Nand Kishor Dhoundiyal, Garhwal ki Divangat Vibhutiyan (pp108-116, about contribution of Bhagwati Prasad Panthri for developing Moder, Contemporary Garhwali drama)
8- Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, 1986, ‘Chakrchal’, 16 Modern, Contemporary Garhwali Drama collection, B2 -B48, Janakpuri, New Delhi -110058
Copyright@ Bhishm Kukreti

Thursday, March 22, 2012

Kathai Birali : A Garhwali Drama

(Review of a contemporary Garhwali Drama Kathai Birali (काठऐ बिराळि) by Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna)
(Notes on contemporary Indian dramas, contemporary Himalayan dramas, contemporary Uttarakhandi dramas, contemporary Garhwali dramas, hundred years of contemporary Garhwali dramas)   

Kathai Birali (काठऐ बिराळि) is one of the sixteen contemporary Garhwali dramas of ‘Chakrchal’(1986) a contemporary Garhwali drama collection book  by Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna . The drama deals with the emotional attachment of migrated Garhwalis of Delhi, their desire to do something for their beloved motherland Garhwal. However, due to  necessary struggle for better life in cities of Delhi, Mumbai etc they are unable to contribute physically there in Garhwal. 
The contemporary Garhwali drama Kathai Birali (काठऐ बिराळि)   is about social workers  as Martand (a businessman), Tarang  (a poet and intellectual), Aruna (a student leader), Bedhadak (a journalist), Raghu (poen at  Garhwal Sabha Delhi, Ajad (a politician) , Bhola (just came to delhi for his wife ‘s treatment) taking part in conference.  
There is no thrill in this contemporary drama but it opens many problems of Garhwal and pertaining to migrated Garhwalis. There is evergreen problem of contemporary Garhwal in the drama Kathai Birali (काठऐ बिराळि) as following dialogue states

मार्तंड - हाँ आजै मिटिग्यौ कार्यक्रम क्या ?
तरंग- बात पुराणि ही गुरजि पण अमणि ज़रा हम लोग वां पर कुछ ण्या तरीका से
गंभीरता पूर्बक स्वचणा छां -पाड़ी माटो सौब उन्दों बौग्यी औणु .
The playwright of contemporary drama Kathai Birali (काठऐ बिराळि) also deals with the negative points in contemporary political world. Azad lost election recent election. Now, he joins the ruling party and the characters of contemporary drama Kathai Birali (काठऐ बिराळि) describes the political characteristics as –

मार्तंड - अच्छा आजाद जीन ह्रदय परिवर्तन कर यले ?
अरुणा - ये देश मा हौर हूणु क्या . बगैर स्र्जारी का दिल बदलेणा छन -कमाल
Bahuguna has been a leader in adopting popular Hindi and Sanskrit phrases in Garhwali as

तरंग-सूरज का समणि मु छ्याळो क्य रगर्यौण

The contemporary Garhwali drama ‘Kathai Birali (काठऐ बिराळि) is successful in depicting the frustrating state of migrated Garhwali intellectuals and social workers who can only discuss about the problems of contemporary Garhwal and Garhwalis in plains but are totally unable to act upon.
Bahuguna wrote this contemporary Garhwali drama ‘Kathai Birali (काठऐ बिराळि)’ for radio medium. Therefore, Abodh Bandhu emphasized more on dialogues that the requirement of stage on contemporary Garhwali drama ‘Kathai Birali (काठऐ बिराळि)’.

 References:
1-Dr Anil Dabral, Garhwali Gady Parampara (Contemporary Garhwali Dramas from beginning till 1990)
2-Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna, Gad Myateki Ganga (Contemporary Garhwali dramas from beginning till 1975)
3-Dr Sudharani, Garhwal ka  Rangmanch (Contemporary  Garhwali Dramas from beginning till 1985)
4-Drama special issue of Chitthi Patri magazine (Contemporary Garhwali Dramas and plays staged in Delhi, Karachi, Mumbai, Dehradun and other places)
5- Dr Hari Datt Bhatt Shailesh, Garhwali Natak evam Rangmanch: Ek Vihngam Avlokan (Contemporary Garhwali Drams and theatres from beginning till 1985)
6-Dr Bhakt Darshan: Barrister Mukandi Lal Srmriti Granth (Contemporary Garhwali dramatists or theatres playwrights till 1985
7-Dr Nand Kishor Dhoundiyal, Garhwal ki Divangat Vibhutiyan (pp108-116, about contribution of Bhagwati Prasad Panthri for developing Contemporary Garhwali drama)
8- Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna,1986,  ‘Chakrchal’ , 16 Contemporary  Garhwali Drama collection, B2 -B48, Janakpuri, New Delhi -110058
Copyright@ Bhishm Kukreti,